OWL 2 QL is a standard profile of the OWL 2 ontology language, specifically tailored to Ontology-Based Data Management. Inspired by recent work on higher-order Description Logics, in this paper we present a new semantics for OWL 2 QL ontologies, called Metamodeling Semantics (MS), and show that, in contrast to the official Direct Semantics (DS) for OWL 2, it allows exploiting the metamodeling capabilities natively offered by the OWL 2 punning. We then extend unions of conjunctive queries with both metavariables, and the possibility of using TBox atoms, with the purpose of expressing meaningful metalevel queries. We first show that under MS both satisfiability checking and answering queries including only ABox atoms, have the same complexity as under DS. Second, we investigate the problem of answering general metaqueries, and single out a new source of complexity coming from the combined presence of a specific type of incompleteness in the ontology, and of TBox axioms among the query atoms. Then we focus on a specific class of ontologies, called TBox-complete, where there is no incompleteness in the TBox axioms, and show that general metaquery answering in this case has again the same complexity as under DS. Finally, we move to general ontologies and show that answering general metaqueries is coNP-complete with respect to ontology complexity, Π2p-complete with respect to combined complexity, and remains AC0 with respect to ABox complexity.
2021, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Pages - (volume: 292)
Metamodeling and metaquerying in OWL 2 QL (01a Articolo in rivista)
Lenzerini M., Lepore L., Poggi A.
Gruppo di ricerca: Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge Representation, Gruppo di ricerca: Data Management and Semantic Technologies