Forecasting geomagnetic indices represents a key point to develop warning systems for the mitigation of possible effects of severe geomagnetic storms on critical ground infrastructures. Here we focus on SYM‐H index, a proxy of the axially symmetric magnetic field disturbance at low and middle latitudes on the Earth's surface. To forecast SYM‐H, we built two artificial neural network (ANN) models and trained both of them on two different sets of input parameters including interplanetary magnetic field components and magnitude and differing for the presence or not of previous SYM‐H values. These ANN models differ in architecture being based on two conceptually different neural networks: the long short‐term memory (LSTM) and the convolutional neural network (CNN). Both networks are trained, validated, and tested on a total of 42 geomagnetic storms among the most intense that occurred between 1998 and 2018. Performance comparison of the two ANN models shows that (1) both are able to well forecast SYM‐H index 1 h in advance, with an accuracy of more than 95% in terms of the coefficient of determination R2; (2) the model based on LSTM is slightly more accurate than that based on CNN when including SYM‐H index at previous steps among the inputs; and (3) the model based on CNN has interesting potentialities being more accurate than that based on LSTM when not including SYM‐H index among the inputs. Predictions made including SYM‐H index among the inputs provide a root mean squared error on average 42% lower than that of predictions made without SYM‐H.
2021, SPACE WEATHER, Pages - (volume: 19)
Forecasting SYM‐H Index: A Comparison Between Long Short‐Term Memory and Convolutional Neural Networks (01a Articolo in rivista)
Siciliano F., Consolini G., Tozzi R., Gentili M., Giannattasio F., De Michelis P.
Gruppo di ricerca: Algorithms and Data Science