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State of the Art of Visual Analytics for eXplainable Deep Learning (01a Articolo in rivista)

LA ROSA Biagio, Blasilli Graziano, Bourqui Romain, Auber David, Santucci Giuseppe, Capobianco Roberto, Bertini Enrico, Giot Romain, Angelini Marco

The use and creation of machine‐learning‐based solutions to solve problems or reduce their computational costs are becoming increasingly widespread in many domains. Deep Learning plays a large part in this growth. However, it has drawbacks such as a lack of explainability and behaving as a black‐box model. During the last few years, Visual Analytics has provided several proposals to cope with these drawbacks, supporting the emerging eXplainable Deep Learning field. This survey aims to (i) systematically report the contributions of Visual Analytics for eXplainable Deep Learning; (ii) spot gaps and challenges; (iii) serve as an anthology of visual analytical solutions ready to be exploited and put into operation by the Deep Learning community (architects, trainers and end users) and (iv) prove the degree of maturity, ease of integration and results for specific domains. The survey concludes by identifying future research challenges and bridging activities that are helpful to strengthen the role of Visual Analytics as effective support for eXplainable Deep Learning and to foster the adoption of Visual Analytics solutions in the eXplainable Deep Learning community. An interactive explorable version of this survey is available online at https://aware‐diag‐sapienza.github.io/VA4XDL.
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